Guide to Cancer

Guide to Cancer

Guide to Cancer

Definition

Cancer is the mainly uncontrolled division of body cells, especially somatic cells; it can also occur in germline cells (reproductive cells).  This term is specifically used to show this eccentric behaviour of cells.

What is the eccentric behaviour of body cells:-

There can be many eccentric behaviours of body cells, but here we discuss the specific eccentric behaviour, abnormal cell division. Sometimes mutations occur, resulting in disturbance in the head of a cell, which controls all cell activities and starts dividing abnormally.

Head of a cell

The nucleus is called the head of a body cell. This contains all the information, the materials going out or into the cell etc. Mainly it contains DNA which makes nucleus the head of a cell. Something happens to DNA; it will affect the whole cell’s behaviour. This point shows that if DNA disrupts, it instructs the body cells to divide abnormally, which causes cancer.

Causes of cancer

There are many causes of cancer. We have discussed one of the causes in the above section too. Some of them are as follows:-

  • Emotional disturbance
  •  smoking
  • Cancer through inheritance
  • Late diagnosis

What is the source of causing cancer?

The source of causing cancer is a TUMOR. Now, what is a tumour? We have to take a look because we are discussing its source. 

Tumour is mainly the clump of cells which is produced due to abnormal division of the cell. These tumours start dividing further and further and soon take the places of normal cells.

There are two types of tumours:-

  • Benign tumours
  • Malignant tumours

Benign tumours are localized type of tumours. These do not spread throughout the body. We can easily track their sources and easily wipe them out of the body by different methods. We will discuss it later.

Malignant tumours are delocalized kind of tumours. These can divide again and again. Sometimes they unable themselves to be found. It is not easy to find their origin of spreading. There are also many methods to wipe these tumours out of the body. 

Symptoms of cancer

These are mentioned below:-

  • Body pain
  • Swallowing problems
  • Excessive sweating
  • Breathing problems
  • Changes in weight

Common types of cancer

Following are the different common type of cancers:-

  • Blood cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Prostate cancer

Many other types are there, but we will discuss these common types in the following paragraphs

Blood cancer

It is a type of mutation that occurs in bone marrow cells or immune system cells. Causes of blood cancer are negative physiological behaviour which is called ageing, infections, poor immune system. Examples are leukaemia, Lymphoma, myeloma.

Lung cancer

This cancer takes birth in the lungs. This damages alveoli and can spread through the lymphatic system and damage the brain as well. Causes of lung cancer are excessive smoking, indirect exposure to tobacco smoke, inheritance, radiation exposure. Examples are adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma.

Skin cancer

This cancer is usually found in older cells of the skin. This occurs due to mutation caused by sun rays, especially UV rays. This problem is common in Australia, Africa, where there is ozone depletion. Examples are melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma.

Breast cancer

If tumours are producing in the chest of women also called breast, this is called breast cancer. It is restricted to females. Genetic information plays a major role in producing any cancer, not specifically breast cancer. Examples are invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma.

Prostate cancer

This cancer is restricted to males. If in the prostate gland, abnormal growth of cells, which is only present in males, is called prostate cancer. Its causes are genetic disorders, obesity. Examples are sarcomas, transitional cell carcinoma, adenocarcinomas.

Diagnosis of cancer

The first stage of cancer treatment is the cancer diagnosis. The cancer is diagnosed in many ways which are as follows:-

Examination of tumours. Doctors examine the cancerous patient initially by feeling if the patient’s skin plump.

Imaging tests include MRI, PET scan, CT scan.

The biopsy includes testing your body cells in a laboratory. This depends on the type of cancer in which this method should be used.

When cell’s abnormality reaches to its peak, then surgery or radiation therapy comes in the way.

Cancer treatments

Cancer treatments include

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Clinical trials
  • Bone marrow transplant
  • Chemotherapy

Their details are as follows:-

Surgery

Whenever an organ is affected by cancer, that organ is eliminated from the body to reduce the factor of spreading cancer. This is done through a special method called surgery.

Therapies

ChemotherapyRadiation therapy
Drugs are used to kill cancerous cells.Radiations are used to kill cancerous cells.
 2.  This only kills cancer cells.   2. This kills cancer cells but body cells as well. For example, hair cells.
3.  This is done inside the body. 3. This is done outside the body.

Bone marrow transplant

First of all, what is bone marrow, and what are bone marrow cells?

The tissues that are present in bones are used to produce blood cells. Those tissues are called bone marrow. The cells that make those tissues are called bone marrow cells.

This method includes a bone marrow transplant. If the mutation occurs in bone marrow, then bone marrow should be replaced immediately as we have mentioned earlier, they produce blood cells that make our protoplasm. So it may cause serious damage to the patient.

Clinical trials

Clinical trials include inventing new treatments, making discoveries, examining new medical field sides, and examining new patients. Many treatments have also evolved from this method.

Alternative methods

There are alternative methods of curing cancer as follows:-

  • Meditation
  • Living a happy life
  • Awareness about cancer
  • Proper Counseling
  • Take regular checkups

Conclusion

The purpose of this whole note is to make you aware of cancer. As the name of our topic indicates that this whole note is a guide to cancer. This brief note on cancer will make you aware of the type of tumours, cancers, treatments, and alternate methods of treating cancers.

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