Critically discussing real-time design and development issues pertaining to an RT system


Large-scale real-time systems cannot guessed like operations research, scheduling task, and operating systems theory. Instead, academic institutions, private firms, and public research organizations should work together to address these topic-specific issues. Many next-generation distributed real-time systems are constructed around the network. For example, a system’s capacity to function reliably depends on its ability to communicate with other systems. Finding the fault, discovering the cause, resetting the system, and resolving the issue are common steps in handling errors[1][2]. There must be meticulous planning and analysis of the performance (including any time constraints) and the reliability of each phase. Research into hardware and operating system support and how these affect performance and dependability are crucial. The problems created by real-time systems have not solved to everyone’s satisfaction in the design and development of the system. They must constantly communicate to work together effectively for educational and private sector development. System developers can learn about new theories and technologies that academic researchers can use in their work, and vice versa.

  1. The memory considerations that need to be taken [1 page]

Developing systems that can operate well in the actual world is complicated. Because real-time systems must interact with the physical environment, they encounter many difficulties. In the future, these interconnections may become quite complex. Generally, real-time systems may be conversing with thousands of these entities simultaneously. Tens of thousands of user calls are handled daily by a phone switching system, for example. For the system to work, it must be able to connect each call uniquely. Additionally, the particular order in which events occur throughout the call may vary from call to call.

There is a set amount of time in which real-time systems must react to events in the outside world. The system must perform correctly and precisely for an operation to be successful. Ensure that the software and hardware of the structure meet Real-time requirements. For illustration, tens of thousands of clients must be able to hear the dial tone in less than one second on a telephone switching system. These requirements can meet as long as the phone’s off-hook mechanism and software message work correctly. Any time a new phone call is placed, it needs to meet these criteria for the system to work effectively.

The real-time reaction must be at the forefront of the designer’s ideas. Throughout the architecture design stage, the hardware and software engineers work together to identify the suitable classification architecture to meet the requirements. Determine how processors connect, how fast the linkages between them are, how quickly the processors themselves are, and any other relevant information. It is imperative to ask the following questions:

  • Is the architecture suitable?Even with minor congestion, the system may not be capable of meeting the Real-time criteria if there are too many nodes involved in sending and receiving messages. Because having too many nodes can slow down the delivery of messages. It is now more likely that a simplified design can meet the Real-time requirements.
  • Are the processing components powerful enough?Real-time behavior can be challenging when the central processing unit (CPU) is overworked. In addition, the system’s highest-priority processes may consume the CPU time available, leaving the lowest-priority operations with no time. As a result, even the less critical tasks may become challenging.
  • Are the link speeds adequate?More than 30–50% of a link’s capacity is generally too much. The formation of queues on various nodes slows down message communication in multiple ways due to increased connection traffic.
  • Is the Operating System suitable?High precedence should be given to tasks that must be done to process important events. Preemptive real-time scheduling may be a viable option if the system must operate in real-time. Preliminary comparisons of various operating systems’ interrupt latency and scheduling variation are critical.


Regarding job scheduling, the scheduling variance measures how accurate the timeframes are. Phone switching systems should be able to provide dial tones in less than 500 milliseconds as an example of how fast they should be. Usually requires devising strategies for accomplishing three to five different jobs within the allocated time frame. For the vast majority of operating systems, calculating the average Dialtone delay is an easy task. On the other hand, general-purpose operating systems would have Dialtone numbers that are far more distributed [1][2][3]. In computing, “interrupt latency” refers to the time a computer operating system takes to respond to and reschedule tasks in response to interruptions. For the record, real-time operating classifications would majorly impact interrupt latency.


  1. The prioritization of tasks and the problems this can to lead [2 pages]

Internal Problems

Problems with the system’s hardware or software both have the potential to cause it harm. When it comes to the most common types of failures, you can expect the following:

  • Processor Restart: Most real-time operating systems are constructed of several nodes. Because a single node cannot bring the system down, the software must be able to deal with the failure of each of the nodes individually.
  • Software problem in a Task: When something goes wrong, desktop applications can display an error message in a dialogue window and depart, but not real-time applications. Set up the essential duties in advance in case something goes awry. A real-time system’s ability to produce a wide range of events unfold makes this feature more critical. It’s possible that a lab setting won’t be able to examine every likely scenario. As a result, defensive checks are necessary to exit improper states. An additional software fault could cause a job to face a processor exception and fail.

Managing a Processors Failure the other processors in the system must be informed when one of the processors fails. Once the failed node has shut down, these processors will halt all communication with the failing node. When a control processor fails, the telephone switch will automatically terminate any calls that rely on the processing.

A Failed Processor Data Must Recover. It will be necessary to retrieve all of the data lost from the other processors in the system before the failed processor can brought back online. It cannot be guaranteed that all computer system processors will simultaneously arrive at the same result[4][5]. The system will conduct audits to identify and correct any problems in such a case. It is common practice for a switch to communicate with other processors to determine the status of subscriber ports after they have booted up. The system examines the data structures on the various control processors to prevent errors.

  • Board Failure:Real-time systems should be able to self-correct if there is a hardware issue. The design should be able to identify and fix broken circuit boards. The system alerts the operator when a board stops working correctly. It should be possible to replace a malfunctioning circuit board with a working one. The board vacant slots can be used for this purpose.
  • Connection issue:The real-time links connecting the various processing nodes carry most of the communication. The system regularly conducts to detect a broken link and rerouting communications to prevent messages from being lost due to a broken link.

External Problems

In the real world, systems that work well in real-time are a need. Because of this, children should be able to bounce back after failing in the real world and try again. A wide range of environmental failures can occur for a wide range of reasons and in various ways.

  • Invalid Behavior of External Entities: An external component must be able to handle all the various ways the real-time system could fail while interacting with it. An excellent example of this idea is how telephone switching systems take phone calls. The system should address a wide range of human-caused faults, given that it is interfacing with people.
    1. Subscriber goes off-hook but then again does not dial
    2. Subscriber hangs up before concluding dialing.
    3. Children are playing with the phone!

Inter Connectivity Failure: Typically, the components of a real-time system are spread out across multiple sites. Whether or not these locales are connected to the outside world is possible. In these situations, the correct answer is similar to that necessary when internal links are broken. The most crucial difference is that these outages can go on for an extended period, and rerouting communications may not always be possible


Recovering from Failures:

Even if something goes wrong, the resiliency of real-time systems must preserve. These problems could be either internal or external to the organization. We have discussed above how to proceed despite these difficulties in the following paragraphs. Communication media will need to act as the foundation to build future scalable, predictable, and dependable distributed real-time systems. However, software engineering practices have helped identify whether or not the answers given by systems are logically sound, but they have made little progress in terms of time[6][7][8]. It may be challenging to ensure that real-time communication systems have precise timing when using the current technologies. In the rapidly changing world of the next generation, proper timing will be a significant challenge for future research.

  1. What mechanisms can be used to facilitate communication between the various sub-systems and components? [About 2 pages]

Using RPC, also known as remote procedure calls, simplifies the design of computer programs. RPC allows programmers to call other processes the same way they do on their own. RPCs streamline the creation and improvement of traditional systems, but they aren’t nearly as valuable for real-time contexts as they could be. In the actual world, the vast majority of communication is asynchronous, which is the key reason behind this. The query-response approach that RPCs excel at can only be used for a minimal number of message encounters.

So most real-time structures have a state machine architecture that permits numerous messages to be received simultaneously. Information about what will happen next can be found in the message received. Using state machines, it is possible to handle interactions between messages at different periods flexibly. The ability to change and adapt is never without its difficulties.

Meeting Conditions and Timing

According to many, the three most significant characteristics of real-time system strategy is timing. With a quick analysis, the importance of timing may observe. A protocol lays out all the steps that must be completed and specifies the time each should take. Several protocols specify how long it takes to complete a task when the workload grows. Timers are used in real-time systems to solve timing-related problems. A recovery plan will begin if the predicted occurrence does not occur within the given time frame.

For the real-time communication system to work correctly, it must consistently meet the timing requirements of each message. A system’s time-sensitive procedures invoked by applications and how they communicate with one another determine an application’s timing needs. Time has rendered the old networking methods obsolete, leading to new approaches to the problem. Validating a logical communications system is adequate in an unreal-time situation. When anything is happening in realtime, it’s critical to double-check the timing to make sure it’s accurate..

A “contest condition” develops when a resource status is dependent on randomly occurring temporal elements; a “race condition” develops. You can better understand an idea by visualizing it in your mind. Both phone exchanges linked by the trunk can use the two-way trunks in a phone exchange. The trunk can also used to communicate between these exchanges. The challenge stems from the fact that both ends can use the trunk simultaneously. Another term for this is a “race condition.” Assume that a single trunk  used to carry incoming and outgoing calls in this case.

Describing rubrics on who gets to keep the source makes it easy to fix this race condition and get on with business. We can avoid a race condition by placing the two exchanges at opposite ends of the pool and synchronizing their operations. As a result, there will be no collisions even if the load is relatively modest. A more conservative strategy calls for splitting the two-way trunk into two one-way. As a result, the competition would end, but it would also divide the available resources [6][7][8]. There is an urgent need to investigate the roots of the competition. Unlike in this case, most situations involving race are not as clear-cut.


  1. How errors and faults in the system can be managed (keeping in mind the nature of the vehicle) [about 1 page]

Working with Distributed Architectures

The great majority of real-time systems use several nodes for processing. The operating system distributes the task among the several CPUs. This complicates design in several ways:

  • Initializing the System:Setting up a multiprocessor system is more complicated than setting up a sole computer. In most designs, the software release is stored in the OMC. When the network reboots, the first node to go back online will be connected directly to the OMC. Upon completion of configuration, this node will begin downloading software for any connected children. The system will continue te built until it is complete.
  • Maintaining Consistency:Keeping the data structure’s integrity may be challenging when a feature runs on multiple processors simultaneously. Data structure auditing is the most common method of ensuring data consistency.
  • Load Distribution:There are several processors and links to consider when it comes to distributing the load evenly in the process of sending and receiving data. The demand for a system increasing the number of processors in a system can enhance its capacity. Some assume that their expansion will follow suit as their processing power grows.
  • Inter-Processor Interfaces:Creating, implementing, and maintaining message interfaces is one of the most challenging components of real-time systems. This makes it very difficult to declare interoperability, as many CPUs implement different padding rules. Since backward compatibility is a difficulty, maintaining interfaces can be a challenge. Cellular networks must be backward-compatible with previous phones even if they change the air interface protocol to accommodate a brand-new handset model
  • Centralized Resource Allocation:Though distributed structures can run on several mainframes, they must still share the resources that are made available to them. A single one of those processors typically allocates resources shared by many processors. If the system is not deliberate correctly, the shared resource allocator can make it impossible to use the system to its maximum capacity. Users may find this to be infuriating.

Fault Tolerance

The real-time system and the environment it is executing work well together. The great majority of commercial and military aircraft, for example, rely on computers to direct their digital flight. There’s no use in only focusing on the onboard control computers when working with these kinds of devices. A real-time system and the environment in which it operates must interact closely because of time and reliability constraints. Failure to deliver “acceptable” services for the environment in which a real-time system runs will lead to the system viewed as either non-existent or ineffective. This type of failure is known as “static failure,” which occurs when the system cannot respond quickly to changes in its surroundings (dynamic loss). Real-time applications can benefit from this interaction, but it must be carefully defined. Defining when specific activities are accomplished is a hurdle in some of these systems[8][9][10]. According to this description of a real-time problem, real-time computers still face several designs and analytical challenges, such as dealing with failures, redundancies, and adapting their architectures.



There will be many more real-time systems in the future that are difficult to understand and operate in highly dynamic and scattered environments that are challenging to control. Components based on expert systems and complex timing constraints that span a wide range of time units will be included. This could lead to various economic, human, and environmental disasters. We require a concerted and coordinated effort across all parts of system development to tackle the challenges these features provide.

  • Methods for defining and verifying complex real-time systems that have a large number of components that interact with one another
  • Create strategies that can be used to create systems with the previously mentioned temporal properties. The above-mentioned temporal features are considered throughout the design process’s early phases.
  • Programming languages make it straightforward to describe how modules behave concerning time.
  • Approaches for scheduling that can deal with complex task constructions with resource limits and execution order constraints. resources such as the communication 1/0 devices, and timing constraints with variable degrees of granularity.
  • Design and protocols that facilitate and speed up the transmission and reception of information promptly
  • When time is at a premium and resources must be allocated timely and reliable, the operating system’s functions are necessary.
  • Architecture has a role in operating systems’ fault tolerance, efficiency, and time-constrained communication.



  1. Soltanmohammadlou, N., Sadeghi, S., Hon, C. K., & Mokhtarpour-Khanghah, F. (2019). Real-time locating systems and safety in construction sites: A literature review. Safety science117, 229-242.
  2. Kotsampopoulos, P., Lagos, D., Hatziargyriou, N., Faruque, M. O., Lauss, G., Nzimako, O., … & Strunz, K. (2018). A benchmark system for hardware-in-the-loop testing of distributed energy resources. IEEE Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal5(3), 94-103.
  3. Sun, X., Diao, K., Lei, G., Guo, Y., & Zhu, J. (2019). Real-time HIL emulation for a segmented-rotor switched reluctance motor using a new magnetic equivalent circuit. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics35(4), 3841-3849.
  4. Müller, T., Walz, A., Kiefer, M., Doran, H. D., & Sikora, A. (2018, June). Challenges and prospects of communication security in real-time ethernet automation systems. In 2018 14th ieee international workshop on factory communication systems (wfcs)(pp. 1-9). IEEE.
  5. Ribeiro, E. G., Mendes, T. M., Dias, G. L., Faria, E. R., Viana, F. M., Barbosa, B. H., & Ferreira, D. D. (2018). Real-time system for automatic detection and classification of single and multiple power quality disturbances. Measurement128, 276-283.
  6. Sun, Y., Fei, T., Li, X., Warnecke, A., Warsitz, E., & Pohl, N. (2020). Real-time radar-based gesture detection and recognition built in an edge-computing platform. IEEE Sensors Journal20(18), 10706-10716.
  7. Vitturi, S., Zunino, C., & Sauter, T. (2019). Industrial communication systems and their future challenges: Next-generation Ethernet, IIoT, and 5G. Proceedings of the IEEE107(6), 944-961.
  8. Bello, L. L., Mariani, R., Mubeen, S., & Saponara, S. (2018). Recent advances and trends in on-board embedded and networked automotive systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics15(2), 1038-1051.
  9. Tantalaki, N., Souravlas, S., & Roumeliotis, M. (2020). A review on big data real-time stream processing and its scheduling techniques. International Journal of Parallel, Emergent and Distributed Systems35(5), 571-601.
  10. Diffenderfer, E. S., Verginadis, I. I., Kim, M. M., Shoniyozov, K., Velalopoulou, A., Goia, D., … & Cengel, K. A. (2020). Design, implementation, and in vivo validation of a novel proton FLASH radiation therapy system. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics106(2), 440-448.


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top
Scroll to Top